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Human Reproduction

Posted on May 02, 2022

By BlackPirateX. 713 words. Read by 4 minute(s).

Male Reproductive Organ

  1. Male reproductive organs consists of testes, accesssory glands, glands and external genetitalia.
  2. Male reproductive system is located in pelvic region.
  3. There’s one pair of testes which is situated outside the human body within a pouch called scrotum.
  4. Scrotum has lower temparature than the body (2-2.5 degree celcius less)
  5. This lower temparature is necessuary for spermatogenesis.
  6. testis is oval in shape 4-5cm in length and 2-3 cm in width.
  7. Testes has 250 compartments which are called testicular lobules.
  8. each testicular lobules contains 2-3 seminiferous tubules.
  9. Seminiferous tubules has two types of cells
    1. germ cells
    2. sertoli cells
  10. Germ cells undergo miotic divisions to produce sperms.
  11. sertoli cells mostly provide nutritions to germ cells
  12. the region outside the seminiferous tubules is called interstitial space.
  13. It is full with blood vessels and cells found here are called interstitial cells or Laydig Cells
  14. Laydig cells secrete and synthesis testicular hormones called androgens.

Structure of Male reproductive accessory ducts

  1. Seminiferous tubules opens into rete testis.
  2. Rete testis opens into Vasa Efferentia
  3. Vasa Efferentia opens into Epididymis which is located at the posterior of the testes.
  4. Epididymis opens into Vasa Deferens
  5. Vasa Deferens ascends to the abdomen and loops over the urinary bladder.
  6. It recieves a duct from seminal vesicle and opens into urethra as ejaculatory duct.
  7. Urethra originates from urinary bladder and ends in the external opening of penis called Urethral meatus
  8. Penis is external genitilia of male, it is made up of special tissue which helps in erection for insemination.
  9. The enlarged end of the penis is called glans penis and it is covered by foreskin.
  10. Male accessory glands include paired seminal vesicle, one prostate gland and a pair of bulbourethral glands.
  11. Secretions of these makes Seminal plasma which is rich in fructose, calcium.

The Female Reproductive System

  1. The feamle reproductive system consists of a pair of ovaries, a pair of oviducts (fallopian tubes), utereus, cervix, vagina, and external genetilia
  2. Ovaries are located two sides of the utereus of lower abdomen.
  3. Ovaries forms ovum
  4. Fallopian tubes extends from the periphery of the ovary to the utereus.
  5. fallopian tubes are 10-12 cm long.
  6. The funnel shaped thing near ovaries are called Infundibulum which has finger-like projections called fimbrie
  7. The part after infundibulum is called ampulla, it is wider, (this is the place where fertilisation takes place.)
  8. The part after ampulla is called isthmus, which connects to the utereus by a narrow lumen.
  9. The uterus is called womb. It is shaped as inverted pear.
  10. It has ligaments attacted to the pelvic region
  11. The uterus opens into vagina by a narrow cervix. i
  12. The cavity of the cervix is called cervical canal.
  13. The uterus has three layers.
    1. Permetruim - External thin membrenous tissue layer.
    2. Myometrium - middle thick layer of smooth muscles, exibits strong contractions during childbirth.
    3. Endometrium - inner glandular layer, it undergoes cyclical changes during menstrual cycle.
  14. Female external genitilia consists of mons pubis, labia majora, labia minora, clitoris, hymen.
  15. mons pubis is a coushion of fatty tissue covered by skin and pubic hair.
  16. labia majora is a fleshy folds of tissue that extends from down the mons pubis and surround the vaginal opening.
  17. labia minora is under the labia majora.
  18. clitoris is a finger like structure which is located between the joints of two labia minora.
  19. sometimes vagina opening is partially covered by a membrane called hymen
  20. Hymen gets broken during the first intercourse (coitus), but it can also be broken by sudden fall or jolt, or by some sports like horseback riding, cycling etc, or by insertion of vaginal tampon etc. This is why it is not a reliable indicator of virginity or sexual experience.
  21. females have two mammary glands, which are called breasts.
  22. these glands contains glandular tissue and variable amount of fat.
  23. the grandular tissue of each breasts is divided into 15-20 mammary lobes.
  24. mammary lobes contains clusters of cells called alveoli.
  25. Alveoli secretes milk, which is stored inside the cavity (lumen) of alveoli.
  26. Alveoli opens into mammary tubules.
  27. The tubules from each lobe gets together and forms mammary duct.
  28. multiple mammary ducts joins the wider mammary ampulla which is connected to the lactiferous duct through which milk is sucked out.

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